A Looming gas hydrate era
Since recent years, a progressively growing interest to natural and technology-driven gas hydrates has been observed world-wide. These focuses are largely attributable to a common desire to better understand that in the medium term, natural gas hydrates tend to become the marginal source of commercially available natural gas - given the huge gas hydrate resources, smaller deposit depths, and high gas content.
Mineral resource replenishment is fundamental for Russia's sustainable gas sector development
A.G. Ananenkov (Gazprom)
The Russian gas industry is built around a country-wide gas supply system. Over the past 40 years, this system has been purposefully developed - as a unified and comprehensive process technology chain incorporating all elements, from the upstream to end users, accompanied by centrally controlled, multiple-level dispatching - to provide an integral gas supply framework. At the same time, this gas sector progress would be hardly ever possible unless the Russia's huge hydrocarbon reserves base which has become part of the country's continuous drive to mineral resource replacement.
Gas hydrates in the World Oceans
L.L. Mazurenko, V.A. Solovyev, and T.V. Matveyeva (VNIIokeangeologiya)
Gas hydrate is one of the forms in which natural gas can be found on this planet, predetermined by thermal and geological environment. Today, gas hydrates are commonly viewed as a non-conventional hydrocarbons resource, a potential GHG emission source, a factor impacting the continental slope environment, and as a geological component affecting offshore development. This report addresses extensive studies in this area undertaken worldwide.
Gas hydrate development methods
K.S. Basniyev, V.V. Kulchitsky, A.V. Shchebetov, and A.V. Nifantov (Gubkin Oil & Gas University)
Potential presence of gas hydrate deposits was initially predicted by I.N. Strizhov (1946) and M.P. Mokhnatkin (1947). Subsequent research in the 1960s by Yu.F. Makogon, F.A. Trebin, V. G. Vassilyev, N.V. Chersky and A.A. Trofimuk have been acknowledged in the USSR as a major breakthrough into this area, and was later listed in the USSR State Scientific Registry in 1970. In 1967, the development of Messoyakh gas field was launched, where reservoir conditions (namely, temperature and pressure) were found to be suitable for methane hydrate formation. All such efforts have given way to extensive hydrate research, world-wide.
Cycling process opportunities for Achimov deposits development
S.M. Lyutomsky, V.Ye. Miskevich, I.Yu. Yushkov, S.V. Lapteva, and N.V. Lepina (TyumenNIIgiprogaz)
For Gazprom, the Achimov play constitutes the key and the most challenging development target in West Siberia. Rational technology choices are essential to meet this company's goal. The most studied portion of the Achimov area has been confined to Urengoy field and has been subdivided into several license blocks. According to current estimates, cycling process is believed to become an economically viable field development option in the years to come.
Abnormally low formation temperatures in dispersed hydrocarbon liquid pools affect condensate flow dynamics
A.N. Nugayeva (Gazpromneft)
As has been exemplified by Dulismin field, comprehensive impacts associated with dispersed hydrocarbon liquids and formation temperatures on dynamics of C5+ presence in formation gas and on condensate recovery ratio, in natural drive conditions, are addressed in this paper. It was found that predicting the presence of C5+ hydrocarbons, when no consideration is given to dispersed liquids, would potentially lead to considerable overstating the condensate output. Here we summarise our extensive research in this area.
Gas industry in the Russia’s East: the upcoming epochal decisions
V.P. Timoshilov (Gazprom)
The Russian Energy Strategy to 2020 envisages continued development of the energy sector in East Siberia and the Russia's Far East, and calls for setting up a new gas producing region there. The Russian government has acknowledged the challenges involved in Eastern gas development and, given a comprehensive approach involved, made a decision in 2002 to embark on the Unified East Siberian and Far East Production, Transportation and Gas Supply Programme, giving a look at potential exports to China and other Asia Pacific countries. Gazprom was named as a key programme co-coordinator, to formulate the appropriate Eastern gas development strategy as part of Russia's overall gas production targets.
Integrated gas production control systems: development trends
S.P. Chistikov and V.K. Lavrukhin (Gazprom), L.I. Grigoriev and A.I. Ermolayev (Gubkin Oil & Gas University), T.A. Asanov (VNIPIgazdobycha)
Several factors exist to underpin Russia's renewed focuses on technical policies involved in gasfield process automation: new gas fields in remote Far North and offshore locations; the Russian government's ruling that calls for continued expansion of resource base; and recent arrangements assuming higher gas exports to Europe. Traditional approaches and guidelines in this area have been revised, prompted by recent upstream gas experience and greater emphasis on IT-driven field performance benefits.
The environment: Legal and regulatory framework for Baltic Sea projects
L.Z. Dolotovskaya (Promgaz)
Implementation of Gazprom's projects in the Baltic Sea assumes meeting Russia's respective international commitments. Key international regulations addressing the Baltic environment focus on avoidance and prevention of environmental hazards applied to this "special zone." This paper analyses main international and Russian regulations concerning the environmental aspects of industry activities in the Baltic Sea area.
Electrically driven refrigerator running on gas distribution station waste energy
D.T. Aksenov (Avtogazsistema-Bis)
Excessive gas waste energy at gas distribution stations can be effectively utilised by means of electrically driven refrigerating packages. Their introduction is believed helpful for gas savings and reduction of environmental implications. In addition, such refrigerators are expected to add significant revenue at local gas distribution installations. This innovation comes well within Gazprom's present focuses on wider energy conservation.
Innovative technology for petroleum gas treatment
V.E. Finko and V.V. Finko (NTF), Ch.T. Serikov and Kh.S. Merpeisov (Kaztransgaz-LNG)
This innovative technology has been successfully tested in sulphur and mercaptanrich petroleum gas treatment applications incorporating three processing units with no moving parts, and 45,000 cu m/hour cumulative capacity. When cooling gas down to -80...-110oC temperatures, it was possible to achieve treatment quality which meets stringent GOST 5542-87 Russian specifications.
Power equipment operating performance in offshore environment
V.S. Vovk, V.V. Gogolyuk, and G.R. Shvarts (Gazprom), S.V. Vlasov and A.V. Avdonin (Gazpromenergodiagnostika)
Extended coverage of Gazprom's power equipment and installation diagnostics programmes, to include oil and gas facilities in offshore applications, is believed to benefit the operating performance and security in stringent operating conditions.