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This issue of Gazovaya Promyshlennost’s (Gas Industry) Digest encompasses major science and engineering developments of Gazprom as well as in other related industries.
Emergence of unconventional hydrocarbon accumulations: New ideas
A.N. Dmitrievsky (Institute of Oil and Gas Problems, RAS), I.E. Balanyuk (Institute of Oceanology, RAS), A.V. Karakin (VNIIGeosystem)
In oil and gas basins confined to tension zones of ocean crust (regions of over-arc spreading), large hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in granites or above thin sedimentary strata (such as White Tiger field and other similar accumulations in granites of island-arc rear regions). This study introduces a fluid dynamic model which could be helpful in identifying the locations with maximum deformations of a stretched layer, thereby pinpointing the most probable hydrocarbon accumulations. The proposed technique has helped to reveal feasible implications of stability loss or major dynamic restructuring of a fluid system for large hydrocarbon releases or, conversely, downward flow thereof, thus leading to well watering together with serious environmental and economic loss.
Technology-driven hydrocarbons migration in oil and gas provinces
L.M. Fokina (VNIIGAZ) and S.I. Raikevich (Yamburggazdobycha)
Hydrocarbon-rich gases are the key components of oil and gas production, and constitute the chief volumes (about 622 tonnes) of atmospheric emissions which accompany field operations - thereby inevitably leading to pollution of water and other ecosystems. In-depth research into presence, sources and laws pertaining to hydrocarbon gas emergence in hydro-, litho-, and atmosphere - aiming to evaluate the extent of such migrations in the Gazprom's operating area - is of topical importance after Russia's signing the Kyoto Protocol in October 2004.
Modelling PVT properties of reservoir hydrocarbon fluids while oil field development planning
A.I. Brusilovsky and A.N. Nugayeva (Sibneft)
Understanding and development of approaches to reservoir fluids description are among the most topical issues for the gas sector: typically, companies acquire both oil and gas fields. This paper focuses on description of an efficient approach to preparation of data used to generate reservoir fluid PVT relationships in "black oil" hydrodynamic models. Case history of using this technique in Yarainerskoye field (West Siberia) is discussed here.
Offshore oil and gas development in Russian Arctic zones
B.A. Nikitin (Gazprom), D.A. Mirzoyev (VNIIGAZ) and E.V. Bogatyreva (Gubkin Oil & Gas University)
Progressively growing global energy demand - most importantly, automotive fuels and petrochemicals feedstock - under the generally maturing onshore oil and gas fields and subsequent production declines, calls for special emphasis on offshore development. This appears to involve a major challenge as it would require a basically new oil and gas sector to be set up, with all related infrastructure and its unique features such as innovative surface and subsea technologies as well as installations suitable for the harsh Arctic environment.
Offshore platform inspection methods
A.B. Pavlov, E.F. Dudik, V.M. Goritski, and V.K. Vostrov (Melnikov TsNIIPSK)
Since recent years, the rapidly growing offshore oil and gas development in Russia is dictating wider employment of platforms relocated from previous sites to cut the overall field development costs. Therefore, platform technical status evaluation becomes an increasingly topical issue to be solved as part of platform general inspection or technical diagnostics of its individual structural elements.
Mobile functional ice-resistant platforms
R.S. Shibakin (VNIIGAZ)
Domestic offshore oil and gas development is associated, most and foremost, with shallow part of the Arctic shelf. At present, science and technology efforts in Russia are primarily focused on high-mobility offshore drilling units designed for year-round operation in adverse conditions such as ice environment, with operating depths down to 60 metres. The most recent research into this area evidences numerous advantages of gravity-type structures suitable for these applications.
Financial monitoring of Tazov Bay horizontal well construction
A.A. Sazonov (ZAO Gorizont-Servis-Geonavigatsiya), V.V. Kulchitsky and I.Yu. Polosina (Gubkin Oil & Gas University)
Horizontal wells construction in the Tazov Bay (Tazovskaya Guba) offshore area is known to be much more capital-intensive than drilling the more common directional wells. Modifications to initial well design - and, moreover, when they apply to horizontal wells - would inevitably call for adjustment of both the technology employed and related cost estimates. The optimum technology choice requires setting up a convenient comparison base for available drilling technologies with their costs recovered by future product sales. Comprehensive financial monitoring enables tracking various well construction choices and ensures timely response to technology changes.
Titanium-based solutions for oil and gas engineering applications
B.A. Zelenov and B.S. Krylov (FGUP TsNIIM)
Many years of extensive research focused on high-strength and thermally hardenable titanium alloy, TC6 grade, as well as into economically viable technologies offering certified products of secondary titanium - produced from cheap titanium sponge and waste - have yielded a range of most efficient uses for such materials. These advancements can be recommended for various engineering applications such as gas/condensate field development, both onshore and offshore.
Advanced aluminothermic welding techniques
B.V. Ioffe, B.V. Smolyakov, and A.V. Aksenov (Samaratransgaz)
This advanced thermit composition has been tested for over two years with welding operations focused on electrochemical cathodic protection elements of Mokrous - Samara - Togliatti gas pipeline. The composition is expected to find wide applications at numerous major gaslines as it offers significant quality benefits for current CP technology.
Nuclear methods assist underground gas storage studies
S.A. Khan (GAZPROM), A.P. Zubarev (Gazpromgeofizika), and O.G. Semenov (VNIIGAZ)
At present, over 20 underground gas storage facilities are operating in Russia, which have been in service for more than 30 years to date. Therefore, they call for a choice of adequate, high-performance operating technologies individually applicable to each well within the facility. Special emphasis in storage operations is placed on complex physical, geological, and chemical processes associated with formation, borehole and tubing-casing annulus.
Satellite-based navigation support to pipeline flaw location
V.E. Bochkov (Neftegazgeodeziya)
Annual growth in hydrocarbons transmission volumes leads to more stringent constraints regarding the downtime of gas pipelines under repair. Advanced technologies are believed to help mitigate such time losses. Satellite-assisted navigation systems are among the most obvious solutions in this area as they help pinpoint pipeline flaw locations be means of geodetic positioning techniques.
Express-method helps evaluate remaining gas pipeline life
V.V. Kharionovski (VNIIGAZ)
Experience gained over the past three years with major gas pipeline operations indicates that, in addition to available analytical results, it appears viable to design an express-method which would help predict the remaining pipe service life. Based on existing pipeline design and service history data, operators could make timely decisions regarding pipeline current status and service life expectations for individual route segments.
Advanced pipeline gas treatment technology
V.E. Finko (NTF)
Various publications concerning oil and gas development and future Russian gas production opportunities evidence the smaller fields remaining a valuable source of spare capacity. Although Gazprom has been involved in such operations for over a decade, wider production in these fields is impeded by numerous challenges such as lack of inexpensive production technology to be readily available for introduction in field environment. Several possible solutions are offered by the author, based on this advanced LNG technology.